The EEDI-2 is a 20 item measure consisting of (3) questions to identify Schneider’s First Rank Symptoms of Schizophrenia (FRS) (e.g. thought insertion, thought broadcasting, etc.), and (5) questions from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality (MMPI). Both of these sets of questions are included because they can assist the clinician in identifying abnormal factors and these questions have been slightly altered in a manner that negates veridical empathic phenomenology. In addition, the measure includes (6.5) questions that pertain to veridical empathic phenomena that are labeled as signs of “Possible Psychic Empathy” (PPE), and (1) question that pertains to veridical telepathic phenomena labeled as signs of “Possible Telepathy” (PT). Lastly, there are (4.5) questions from the Emotional Contagion Scale (ECS) (Doherty, 1997), that can assist in differentiating non-psychic empathic experiences from psychic empathic experiences. In private practice, the measure has yielded consistent results and validity. However, further testing of this measure’s reliability and validity are required.
Empathic Experiences Differential Interview – (EEDI)
Special Note: Some of these items have been slightly altered to include inaccurate empathic phenomenology and elaboration to assist in differentiation.
FRS: Schneider’s First Rank Symptoms of Schizophrenia (TB: Thought Broadcasting), (TI: Thought Insertion), (MV: Made Volition), (MF: Made Feeling), (MI: Made Impulse).
MMPI: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: F Scale Items and Dysfunctional Negative Emotion (I: Irritability), (F/W: Fear and Worry), (S: Sadness).
PPE: Possible Psychic Empathy: (EI: Empathic Interaction), (ES: Empathic Simulation [I: Input], [O: Output], (EC: Empathic Cognition) (EMS: Emotional Sensitivity [indicative of a need for co-diagnosis]).
PT: Possible Telepathy (TS: Telepathic Simulation [D: Dream]).
ECS: Emotional Contagion Scale more associated with emotional than cognitive modes of non-psychical empathy.
Scoring and Interpretation
Each item on the measure is answered by a “yes” or a “no” and can include a 5-point scale (0 = none or not at all; 1 = slight or rare, less than a day or two; 2 = mild or several days; 3 = moderate or more than half the days; and 4 = severe or nearly every day). Any questions answered “yes” or that receives a rating of slight (i.e. 1) or greater from the FRS or question number (20) serves are an indication of psychotic features or the presence of experience intensity exaggeration (i.e. vivid quality vs. faint or fragmented quality). Any questions answered “yes” or that receives a rating of slight (i.e. 1) or greater from the MMPI: F/W/S/I serves are an indication of Dysfunctional Negative Emotion.
Any PPE questions answered “yes” should be viewed as the possible sign of veridical empathic experiences and not as psychotic symptoms. If the PT question is answered “yes,” this should be viewed as the possible sign of veridical telepathic experiences and not as psychotic symptoms. However, any PPE or PT questions are answered “yes” in conjunction with questions answered “yes” from the FRS or question number (20) should be dismissed, at least until treatment has completely resolved psychotic symptoms, if applicable (i.e. acute psychosis). In addition, any ECS questions answered “yes” should be viewed as signs of emotional contagion rather than as psychic empathic experiences.
Doherty, R. W. (1997). The Emotional contagion scale: A measure of individual differences. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 21, 131-154.
Citation: Kelly, T.M. (2015). Additional Measures. In Clinical Parapsychology: Extrasensory Experiences & Phenomena (Textbook). University of Alternative Studies. PDF Copyright © 2015 Theresa M. Kelly. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.