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Clairvoyance

Clairvoyance is the psychical influence of an objective environment or universal information system capable of storing, retaining, and recalling information pertaining to the past and current states of objects and events, and probabilistically determining the potential trajectory of future events. It is also involved in the interim integration, processing, shifting, and retrieval of information pertaining to objects and events in real-time. Clairvoyance is possible through the act of an experient requesting and receiving information pertaining to past events via the systems long-term information storage (Retro/Postcognition), or pertaining to real-time events via the systems working memory or short-term information storage (Remote Sensing/Remote Viewing). The information pertaining to future events are the result of Natures computational capabilities of relative causal knowledge encompassing deterministic and random variables (Precognition/Presentiment), which are assumed stored by Nature and retrievable by the experient. (Kelly, 2011)

In addition, Clairvoyance includes anomalous communication with immaterial entities (mediumship) most commonly referred to as apparitions, ghosts, or spirit guides, which are believed to have a form of consciousness and element of personality. Assuming thought to be the basis of consciousness, this form of communication requires specific mental processes by which experients utilize for thought transference between the experient and immaterial entities. These thoughts are also transferred through intuitive, or emotional, modes or through several hallucinatory sensory modes including visual, auditory, olfaction, gustatory, and somatosensory modalities.(Kelly, 2011)

Claims for the existence of paranormal psychic abilities such as clairvoyance are highly controversial. Parapsychology explores this possibility, but the existence of such paranormal phenomena is not accepted by the scientific community outside parapsychology.


Terminology

Clairvoyance (from 17th century French with clair meaning “clear” and voyance meaning “visibility”) is the apparent ability to gain information about an object, location or physical event through means other than the known human senses,[1][2] a form of extra-sensory perception. A person said to have the ability of clairvoyance is referred to as a clairvoyant (“one who sees clear”).

 

Usage

Within parapsychology, clairvoyance is used exclusively to refer to the transfer of information that is both contemporary to, and hidden from, the clairvoyant. It is differentiated from telepathy in that the information is said to be gained directly from an external physical source, rather than being transferred from the mind of one individual to another.[3]

Outside of parapsychology, clairvoyance is often used to refer to other forms of Anomalous cognition, most commonly the perception of events that have occurred in the past, or which will occur in the future (known as retrocognition and precognition respectively),[4][3] or to refer to communications with the dead (see Mediumship).

Clairvoyance is related to remote viewing, although the term “remote viewing” itself is not as widely applicable to clairvoyance because it refers to a specific controlled process.


Status of Clairvoyance

Within the field of parapsychology, there is a consensus that some instances of clairvoyance are verifiable.[5][6] There is also a measured level of belief from amongst the general public, with the portion of the US population who believe in clairvoyance varying between 1/4 and 1/3 over the 15 year period from 1990 to 2005. Year Belief 1990 26% 2000 32% 2005 26%[4]

The concept of clairvoyance gained some support from the US and Russian governments both during and after the Cold War, and both governments made several attempts to harness it as an intelligence gathering tool.[7]

According to skeptics, clairvoyance is the result of fraud, self-delusion[4], Barnum effects, confirmatory biases, or failures to appreciate the base rate of chance occurrences. For example, in a scientific experiment of clairvoyance, a purported clairvoyant participant will inevitably make correct guesses some of the time (i.e., during some of the trials within the same experiment), simply because of chance. Furthermore, because of the nature of the statistical tests used by experimenters, a very small proportion of all experiments conducted will yield an overall statistically significant result (suggesting that clairvoyance took place at above-chance levels), again simply because of chance. A proper summary of the experimental evidence on clairvoyance should include a summary of all experiments that were conducted, taking into account their probabilities of turning out false positive and false negative results, and making sure that studies are not included in the review selectively. Some researchers on clairvoyance have tended to purposefully exclude negative findings from their reviews [8], thus biasing their own conclusions.


Clairvoyance and Related Phenomena Throughout History

There have been anecdotal reports of clairvoyance and ‘clear’ abilities throughout history in most cultures. Often clairvoyance has been associated with religious or shamanic figures, offices and practices. For example, ancient Hindu religious texts list clairvoyance amongst other forms of ‘clear’ experiencing, as siddhis, or ‘perfections’, skills that are yielded through appropriate meditation and personal discipline. But a large number of anecdotal accounts of clairvoyance are of the spontaneous variety among the general populace. For example, many people report seeing a loved one who has recently died before they have learned by other means that their loved one is deceased. While anecdotal accounts do not provide scientific proof of clairvoyance, such common experiences continue to motivate research into such phenomena.

The earliest record of somnambulistic clairvoyance is credited to the Marquis de Puységur, a follower of Mesmer, who in 1784 was treating a local dull-witted peasant named Victor Race. During treatment, Race reportedly would go into trance and undergo a personality change, becoming fluent and articulate, and giving diagnosis and prescription for his own disease as well as those of others. When he came out of the trance state he would be unaware of anything he had said or done. This behavior is somewhat reminiscent of the reported behaviors of the 20th century medical clairvoyant and psychic Edgar Cayce. It is reported that although Puységur used the term ‘clairvoyance’, he did not think of these phenomena as “paranormal”, since he accepted mesmerism as one of the natural sciences.

Clairvoyance was a reported ability of some mediums during the spiritualist period of the late 19th and early 20th centuries and was one of the phenomena studied by members of the Society for Psychical Research (SPR). Psychics of many descriptions have claimed clairvoyant ability up to the present day.

While experimental research into clairvoyance began with SPR researchers, experimental studies became more systematic with the efforts of J. B. Rhine and his associates at Duke University, and such research efforts continue to the present day. Perhaps the best-known study of clairvoyance in recent times was the US government-funded remote viewing project at SRI/SAIC during the 1970s through the mid-1990s.

Some parapsychologists have proposed that our different functional labels (clairvoyance, telepathy, precognition, etc.) all refer to one basic underlying mechanism, although there is not yet any satisfactory theory for what that mechanism may be.


Parapsychological Research

Parapsychological research studies of remote viewing and clairvoyance have produced favorable results significantly above chance, and meta-analysis of these studies increases the significance. For instance, at the Stanford Research Institute, in 1972, Harold Puthoff and Russell Targ initiated a series of human subject studies to determine whether participants (the viewers or percipients) could reliably identify and accurately describe salient features of remote locations or targets. In the early studies, a human sender was typically present at the remote location, as part of the experiment protocol. A three-step process was used, the first step being to randomly select the target conditions to be experienced by the senders. Secondly, in the viewing step, participants were asked to verbally express or sketch their impressions of the remote scene. Thirdly, in the judging step, these descriptions were matched by separate judges, as closely as possible, with the intended targets. The term remote viewing was coined to describe this overall process.

In order to explore the nature of remote viewing channel, the viewer in some experiments was secured in a double-walled copper-screened Faraday cage. Although this provided attenuation of radio signals over a broad range of frequencies, the researchers found that it did not alter the subject’s remote viewing capability. They postulated that extremely low frequency (ELF) propagation might be involved, since Faraday cage screening is less effective in the ELF range. Such a hypothesis had previously been put forward by telepathy researchers in the Soviet Union.[9]

The first paper by Puthoff and Targ on psychic research to appear in a mainstream peer-reviewed scientific journal was published in Nature in March 1974; in it, the team reported some degree of remote viewing success.[10] One of the individuals involved in these initial studies at SRI was Uri Geller, a well-known celebrity psychic at the time. The research team reported witnessing some of Geller’s trademark metal spoon-bending performances, but admitted that they were unable to conduct adequately controlled experiments to confirm any paranormal hypothesis about them.

Electroencephalography (EEG) techniques were also used by team to examine ESP phenomena. In these investigations, a sender, who was isolated in a visually opaque, electrically and acoustically shielded chamber, was stimulated at random by bursts of strobe-light flickers The experimenters reported that, for one receiver, differential alpha block on control and stimulus trials were observed, which showed that some information transfer had occurred. In contrast, this person’s expressed statements of when the stimulus occurred were no different than that which would be expected by chance. The researches were unable to identify the physical parameters by which the EEG effect was mediated.[11]

After the publication of these findings, various attempts to replicate the remote viewing findings were quickly carried out. Several of these follow-up studies, which involved viewing in group settings, reported some limited success. They included the use of face-to-face groups,[12][13] and remotely-linked groups using computer conferencing.[14]

The various debates in the mainstream scientific literature prompted the editors of ‘Proceedings of the IEEE’ to invite Robert Jahn, then Dean of the School of Engineering at Princeton University, to write a comprehensive review of psychic phenomena from an engineering perspective. His paper[15], published in February 1982, includes numerous references to remote viewing replication studies at the time.

Clairvoyance experiments involving Zener cards currently exist on the internet. One such online system, the Anima Project[16], gathers user results into a master database which is then analyzed using a variety of statistical techniques.


Skepticism

Parapsychological research is regarded by critics as a pseudoscience[17] In 1988, the US National Research Council concluded that it “…finds no scientific justification from research conducted over a period of 130 years, for the existence of parapsychological phenomena.”[18]

Skeptics say that if clairvoyance were a reality it would have become abundantly clear. They also contend that those who believe in paranormal phenomena do so for merely psychological reasons. According to David G. Myers (Psychology, 8th ed.)

The search for a valid and reliable test of clairvoyance has resulted in thousands of experiments. One controlled procedure has invited ‘senders’ to telepathically transmit one of four visual images to ‘receivers’ deprived of sensation in a nearby chamber (Bem & Honorton, 1994). The result? A reported 32 percent accurate response rate, surpassing the chance rate of 25 percent. But follow-up studies have (depending on who was summarizing the results) failed to replicate the phenomenon or produced mixed results (Bem & others, 2001; Milton & Wiseman, 2002; Storm, 2000, 2003).

One skeptic, magician James Randi, has a longstanding offer—now U.S. $1 million—“to anyone who proves a genuine psychic power under proper observing conditions” (Randi, 1999). French, Australian, and Indian groups have parallel offers of up to 200,000 euros to anyone with demonstrable paranormal abilities (CFI, 2003). Large as these sums are, the scientific seal of approval would be worth far more to anyone whose claims could be authenticated. To refute those who say there is no ESP, one need only produce a single person who can demonstrate a single, reproducible ESP phenomenon. So far, no such person has emerged. Randi’s offer has been publicized for three decades and dozens of people have been tested, sometimes under the scrutiny of an independent panel of judges. Still, nothing. “People’s desire to believe in the paranormal is stronger than all the evidence that it does not exist.” Susan Blackmore, “Blackmore’s first law”, 2004.


Phases of Clairvoyance

In regards to phases of clairvoyance, current modeling suggests three phases. (1) The first phase is characterized by the formation of a quantum entanglement state of one human brain with an informational system within Nature. During this phase, the quantum states of the brain and informational system of Nature are entangled via some form of interaction or association [e.g. psychometric association, or tactile interaction]. (2) The second phase is characterized by the sustainment of the entangled state of the brain and the informational system. In this phase, it is assumed that the formed entangled state of the brain and the informational system may hold for an extended period of time in a region of the brain under special conditions. (3) The third phase is characterized by the collapsing of the entangled state between the brain and informational system. It is when the entangled state of the brain and information system is collapsed by the measurement of either, that the states of both synchronize to be definite states from an entangled state. At this time, the experient, regardless of space-time variables associated with the informational system or the event or object they retrieve information regarding, will perceive the change. Such modeling continues by assuming that when information is in an entangled state (superposition) no definite perception in relation to the state yet exists. However, when the superposition state collapses into a defined state, a definite perception in relation to the collapse appears. It is at this time that the assumed clairvoyant effect becomes perceptible. (Kelly, 2011)


Types of Clairvoyance

Clairvoyant Cognition

Clairvoyant cognition is the phenomenologically indirect knowledge of an object or event via Nature. In cases of clairvoyant cognition, and experient is retrieving information from Nature, i.e. the experient is able to “pick up on” the information recorded in Nature. The informational system from which the information originates does appear to play an intentional part in the information teleportation processes. In other words, the process is not assumed entirely evoked by the receiver, whereby possibly suggesting Natures ever-present contribution to the survival (well-being) of the experient. Again, in regards to clairvoyant cognition, the experient is an individual with clairvoyant ability capable of evoking clairvoyant processes, or allowing the occasion for Nature to evoke such processes. Here, the experient will become aware of Nature-based information (e.g. states), but should be able to clearly identify that the information did not originate in their own mind. Here the information is received and perceived by the experient, but the information did not develop from a chain of prior thoughts belonging to the experient. Instead, the information appears to “pop up,“ but is immediately associated with a specific event, object or individual other than the experient, or simply identified as not originating from the experient. The type of experient of clairvoyant cognition described above could be defined as an experient of spontaneous clairvoyant cognitive phenomena, in that the information appears to “pop into mind” rather than being intentionally requested. Experients of intentional clairvoyant cognitive phenomena are experients whom select or specify an object, event, or another individual from which they wish to extract information regarding. Mental mediumship is defined as the anomalous communication with immaterial entities most commonly referred to as discarnate spirits (i.e. ghosts) or spirit guides, which are believed to have a form of consciousness and element of personality, or the anomalous communication with Nature, which some believe to be an aggregate of consciousness, or “universal consciousness,” assumed “friendly,” but possessing a neutral personality (i.e. behaviors, temperament, emotions, etc.). (Kelly, 2011)


Clairvoyant Interaction

Theresa M. Kelly, professor of Psychical Studies at the University of Alternative Studies, defines clairvoyant interaction as “the causal influence of an entities “mind” onto an experient without the intervention of the five senses.” This form of clairvoyance is typically known as trance mediumship or channeling. In either case, two forms are typically assumed to exist. In addition to the aforementioned forms of clairvoyant interaction, there also appears to be two more types of interaction including physical mediumship and the abilities characteristic of psychopomps. (1) The first form has characteristics of mental mediumship, but with the medium sitting or lying down in a deep meditative state. During these sessions, the medium may speak as though the information is being conveyed to the medium, but rather, the information is coming directly from the entity, but being conveyed through the mediums natural voice and behaviors. (2) The second form is characteristic of the entity influencing the mediums physical body in addition to speech (i.e. possession). The medium is often awake and aware of most of the communication period and the thoughts and words conveyed from entity to medium to sitter. (3) The third form is physical mediumship, which is defined as the influence of the energies and energy systems of spirits. The term “physical medium” suggests a medium with or without obvious psychical ability, which can be used as a source of “power” for spirit manifestations such as loud rapping and other noises, voices, materialized objects, materialized spirit bodies, or body parts such as hands, or the occurrence of levitation. (4) The fourth form involves the abilities characteristic of psychopomps, which not only involves assisting spirits, which have or have not crossed-over, resolve unfinished issues with the living, but also assisting spirits that have not crossed-over on their journey to the afterlife. Reports of clairvoyant interaction are not limited to discarnate spirits (spirits of the deceased), but have also included seemingly “evil spirits” or demonic entities, angelic entities, spirit guides, and omnipotent spirits described as the Holy Spirit, God(s), Goddess(es), and Nature itself. (Kelly, 2011)


Clairvoyant Simulation

Theresa M. Kelly, professor of Psychical Studies at the University of Alternative Studies, defines “clairvoyant content-simulation” or “clairvoyant simulation” as a case in which an experients mental or physical state appears to produce an accommodating effect in Nature, or Nature produces an accommodating effect within itself or the experient to satisfy the needs of the experient. Clairvoyant simulation appears to involve the casual effective influence of a mind on Nature, or Nature on the mind, without the intervention of the five senses. Via this type of clairvoyance, the experient does not “know,” the information received is foreign (i.e. not of their own volition), nor is aware that their need is the source of their serendipity or luck (i.e. clairvoyant simulators typically believe they are simply “lucky,” rather than “intuitive or psychic”). The input feature of clairvoyant simulation allows Nature to “share” information with the experient that is accommodating to their current intentions or needs (e.g. acquiring information pertaining to how, or, if things work). Information acquired is typically additive to information already known by the experient. While the accommodating input information appears to be qualitatively identical to the experients need for information, the identicalness of the accommodating input information is debatable, as there is no empirical evidence to support this at this time. The skilled experient would however be able to identify that the simulated accommodating input information originated from Nature if the experient is made aware of his/her ability to share information with Nature, and is consistently “on the lookout” for ideas void of a consecutive chain of thoughts or memories. The output feature of clairvoyant simulation allows the experient to negotiate probability shifting with Nature of which is accommodating to their current intentions/needs (i.e. are more focused on shifting probability than information acquisition). I define Probability Shifting as the psychical influence on Nature’s stored probabilistic information (i.e. altering the probabilistic information pertaining to an object or event). Probabilistic information that can be shifted can include historical (also known as retro-PK), real-time, or future probabilities. In regards to all of these types of influence, quantum information is neither created, copied, hidden, nor destroyed, but rather appears to be negotiated (e.g. an accommodating existing future potential is selected rather than various existing non-accommodating potentials). In regards to different temporal features (i.e. past, present, or future), the “change” must have been, or currently is, a probability (i.e. however low the probability of the event, the event is nevertheless permitted by the Gaussian probability distributions of physical possibilities). (Kelly, 2011)


Temporal Phenomenology of Clairvoyance

Several temporal facets of clairvoyance exist including:

(1) Postcognition, or Retrocognition, which literally means, “backward knowing,” and is defined as “the purported paranormal transfer of information about an event or object in the past.” I define postcognition as the psychical influence of an objective environment I call the universal information, or Nature, which I assume is capable of storing, retaining, and recalling information pertaining to the past states of objects, and events. (Kelly, 2011)

(2) Precognition, which literally means, “before or prior to knowing,” and is defined as “a form of extrasensory perception wherein a person is said to perceive information about places or events through paranormal means before they happen.” I define Precognition as the psychical influence of an objective environment I call the universal information system, or Nature, which I assume is capable of probabilistically determining the potential trajectory of future events. (Kelly, 2011)

(3) A contemporaneous temporal facet in which appears to involve the perception of information about places or events through paranormal means during the time at which they are occurring.” This last facet is also known as Remote Viewing, or more generally as Remote Sensing. I define remote viewing and sensing in regards to contemporaneous clairvoyance as the psychical influence of an objective environment termed the universal information system, or Nature, which is assume is involved in the interim integration, processing, shifting, and retrieval of information pertaining to remote objects and events in real-time. (Kelly, 2011)


Other Related Terms

The words “clairvoyance” and “psychic” are often used to refer to many different kinds of paranormal sensory experiences, but there are more specific names:


Clairsentience (feeling/touching)

In the field of parapsychology, clairsentience is a form of extra-sensory perception wherein a person acquires psychic knowledge primarily by means of feeling.[19] The word is from the French clair, “clear,” + sentience, “feeling,” and is ultimately derived from the Latin clarus, “clear,” + sentiens, derived from sentire, “to feel”.

In addition to parapsychology, the term also plays a role in some religions. For example: clairsentience is one of the six human special functions mentioned or recorded in Buddhism. It is an ability that can be obtained at advanced meditation level. Generally the term refers to a person who can feel the vibration of other people. There are many different degrees of clairsentience ranging from the perception of diseases of other people to the thoughts or emotions of other people. The ability differs from third eye in that this kind of ability cannot have a vivid picture in the mind. Instead, a very vivid feeling can form.

Psychometry is related to clairsentience. The word stems from psyche and metric, which means “to measure with the mind”.


Clairaudience (hearing/listening)

In the field of parapsychology, clairaudience [from late 17th century French clair (clear) & audience (hearing)] is a form of extra-sensory perception wherein a person acquires information by paranormal auditory means. It is often considered to be a form of clairvoyance.[20] Clairaudience is essentially the ability to hear in a paranormal manner, as opposed to paranormal seeing (clairvoyance) and feeling (clairsentience). Clairaudient people have psi-mediated hearing. Clairaudience may refer not to actual perception of sound, but may instead indicate impressions of the “inner mental ear” similar to the way many people think words without having auditory impressions. But it may also refer to actual perception of sounds such as voices, tones, or noises which are not apparent to other humans or to recording equipment. For instance, a clairaudient person might claim to hear the voices or thoughts of the spirits of persons who are deceased. Clairaudience may be positively distinguished from the voices heard by the mentally ill when it reveals information unavailable to the clairaudient person by normal means (including cold reading or other magic tricks), and thus may be termed “psychic” or paranormal.[citation needed]


Clairalience (smelling)

In the field of parapsychology, clairalience [presumably from late 17th century French clair (clear) & alience (smelling)] is a form of extra-sensory perception wherein a person acquires psychic knowledge primarily by means of smelling.[21]


Claircognizance (knowing)

In the field of parapsychology, claircognizance [presumably from late 17th century French clair (clear) & cognizance (< ME cognisaunce < OFr conoissance, knowledge)] is a form of extra-sensory perception wherein a person acquires psychic knowledge primarily by means of intrinsic knowledge. It is the ability to know something without knowing how or why you know it.


Clairgustance (tasting)

In the field of parapsychology, clairgustance is defined as a form of extra-sensory perception that allegedly allows one to taste a substance without putting anything in one’s mouth. It is claimed that those who possess this ability are able to perceive the essence of a substance from the spiritual or ethereal realms through taste.[citation needed]


Developing Clairvoyant Abilities

Current thinking among proponents of clairvoyance posits that most people are born with clairvoyant abilities but then start to subliminate them as their childhood training compels them to adhere to acceptable social norms. Numerous institutes offer training courses that attempt to revive the clairvoyant abilities present in those early years.[citation needed]

According to many Taoist related practices, abilities such as clairvoyance and many other ‘supernormal’ abilities are by-products of spiritual awakening and the realisation of divine consciousness. Buddhist teaching says such powers may arise in someone who has developed high states of mental concentration (dhyana), but such powers are in no way seen to be a prerequisite to enlightenment. In fact, they can act an obstacle in that they may divert the practitioner from the goal.

Integral to spiritual and mind expansion is breathwork and meditation. By expanding lung capacity and learning to use the lungs as a ‘bellows’ to direct qi (Chinese: 氣 qì, meaning “air”) around the body and open the subtle energy channels we also naturally expand the mind and refine consciousness. This is how these seemingly miraculous powers develop, though they are not truly miraculous. They are considered to be latent abilities that everyone possesses but need ‘waking up.'[citation needed]

The re-discovery of these energetic abilities relies on the activation of the ‘Dan Tian,’ (Chinese: 丹田 dān tián, meaning “energy field”) or, the central energy reservoir located just below the navel. When the practitioner learns to ‘turn’ it and move it as if it were a fifth limb, then qi can begin to be pushed around the body. The Dan Tian is strong as a baby, but quickly slows to a crawl as one ages. A major part of Taoist and Chinese Buddhist practice is learning to activate the Dan Tian once again. This may also explain why such abilities are stronger as a child and quickly disappear as one ages, but can be awakened by the proper practice of arts such as neigong and qigong to expand the mindstream and spirit. There are many abilities that can be developed in this way — telepathy, prediction, astral travel, pyrokinesis, telekinesis, levitation and energetic healing.


References

  1. http://mw1.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/clairvoyance Merriam-Webster Online dictionary, Retrieved Oct 5, 2007 “1: the power or faculty of discerning objects not present to the senses 2: ability to perceive matters beyond the range of ordinary perception: penetration”
  2. Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Retrieved Oct 7, 2007. The ESP entry includes clairvoyance
  3. Glossary of Parapsychological terms – Clairvoyance — Parapsychological Association (2007-04-27)
  4. Carrol, Robert (2003), “Clairvoyance” – Skeptics Dictionary, Wiley, ISBN 0471272426
  5. “What is parapsychology?”, FAQ – Parapsychological Association (2007-02-03)
  6. “What is the state-of-the-evidence for psi?”, FAQ – Parapsychological Association (2007-02-03)
  7. Waller, Douglas (1995-12-11), “The Vision Thing”, Time, p.45
  8. Tart (1983) Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research
  9. Kogan I, “Information theory analysis of telepathic communication experiments”, Radio Engineering, v23, March 1968, p 122.
  10. Targ R & Puthoff H, “Information transmission under conditions of sensory shielding”, Nature, 251, October 18 1974, pp 602-607.
  11. Rebert C & Turner A, “EEG spectrum analysis techniques applied to the problem of psi phenomena”, Behavioral Neuropsychiatry, v6(1-12), Apr 1974 Apr-Mar 1975, pp18-24
  12. Hastings A & Hurt D, “A Confirmatory Remote Viewing in a Group Setting” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol 64, No 10, p 1544-1545, October 1976.
  13. Whitson T, Bogart D, Palmer J, & Tart C, “Preliminary Experiments in Remote Viewing”, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol 64, No 10, p 1550-1551, October 1976.
  14. Vallee J, Hastings A, & Askevold G, “Remote Viewing Experiments Through Computer Conferencing”, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol 64, No 10, p 1551-1552, October 1976.
  15. Jahn R, “The Persistent Paradox of Psychic Phenomena: An Engineering Perspective”, Proceedings of the IEEE, 7 2, Feb 1982, pp 136-170
  16. “The Anima Project”. Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
  17. Marks, D.F. (2000). The Psychology of the Psychic (2nd Ed.) New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1573927988
  18. An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural James Randi
  19. Parapsychological Association historical terms glossary, retrieved December 17, 2006
  20. Parapsychological Association website, Glossary of Key Words Frequently Used in Parapsychology, Retrieved January 24, 2006
  21. Supernatural Glossary
  22. Kelly, Theresa M. (2011) Clairvoyance: A Quantum Approach – A Textbook of the University of Alternative Studies. Charleston, South Carolina USA.

Further Reading

  1. Kelly, Theresa M. (2011) Clairvoyance: A Quantum Approach – A Textbook of the University of Alternative Studies. Charleston, South Carolina USA.
  2. Kelly, Theresa M.(2013) Quantum Psychics – Scientifically Understand, Enhance and Control Your Psychic Ability, Charleston, South Carolina USA (ISBN: 9780557034024).

External Links

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